THE EARLY YEARS
JAMES C. BARRS
By G-G Grandson Al Barrs, Jr. Revised October 19, 2005
Barrs was born in 1821
to Arthur Barrs (Born 1792 in Lenoir County North Carolina to John
and unknown mother.) and Nancy Campbell-Barrs (Born 1793 in Lenoir
Carolina of Irish parents. Sarah Campbell was born about 1765.). James
was born on the Barrs family's plantation located in
Barrs was the second oldest
son of six children; three sons and three daughters of Arthur and Nancy
James C. Barrs grew up on his father's
brother, William W. Barrs, was born in 1824 in
James C. Barrs’ older brother, Isaac L. Barrs, was born in 1820 in
. Twiggs County Georgia
He married Elizabeth Hinson, had 4 children, lived next door to William W. Barrs in The Nankin District,
Brooks County Georgia until his untimely death at age 30 in August 1850. He probably worked with
James M. Barrs, a cousin to Isaac L. Barrs, James C. Barrs and William W. Barrs and son of their
Uncle Dempsey Barrs, was born in 1829 in
. He enlisted in the CSA July 1863 Twiggs County Georgia
in the 5th Florida Infantry Company 'I',
(The Wakulla Tigers). He went to Wakulla County, Florida with James C. Barrs to operate Salt Works at the mouth of the
County St.Marks River and . He was listed by the CSA as 5' 9" dark skin and hair, blue eyes and occupation Farmer.
Gulf of Mexico
He was wounded in the Battle of Gettysburg
July 2, 1863. He mustered out April 26, 1865, returned to
Port Leon in
, married Elizabeth Prince in 1865 and returned to a life of farming. Wakulla County FL
One of three Barrs sisters, the youngest child of Arthur and Nancy Barrs, Juliann (“Julia”) Barrs was
born in 1938 in
. The other two Barrs daughter's names are unknown. Since Twiggs County Georgia
they were older than Julia I believe the had married in Twiggs County GA before their father Arthur’s
death in 1843 and before the rest of the Barrs family moved to Lowndes County GA after Arthur Barrs
death in 1843 in Twiggs County GA. Julia Barrs married Daniel Farnell in Madison, Madison County
Florida in 1858. They lived in Hamilton and later Lafayette County Florida. Dan Farnell died in Lafayette
County Florida in 1910 and is buried in the Day Lafayette County FL Cemetery. We are unsure of when
Julia Barrs-Farnell died or where she is buried.
Barrs' father, Arthur
Barrs, owned considerable farmlands in
believe the Barrs family of
In 1850 James C. Barrs and his wife, Martha Elizabeth Land-Barrs, (Born 1821 in Lenoir County North Carolina to William Land) and three of his children, including my Great Grandfather Issac Newton Barrs were living in the household of Samual Porter. James C. Barrs was listed as the "Overseer" for Mr. Porter.
Barrs' Mother Nancy Elizabeth
Campbell-Barrs and his youngest Sister, Julia Barrs, were living in the
This Elizabeth Hinson-Barrs had three sons named Joseph age 4, Francis age 3 and James T. age 3. Francis and James T. may have been twins. This Elizabeth Barrs had one daughter named Martha age 1.
the mid-1850s James C.
Barrs took his family, other family members and slaves to the mouth of
Marks River in Wakulla County Florida to manage and operate Salt Works
a valued commodity in
the pre war between the states and even more so during The War. Salt became and invaluable resource for the
Confederate States of
primary use was to preserve
meats and particularly pork (Salt Pork, Bacon, Shoulder, Ham and
which was a major food resource for the Confederate States of
the fall of the year of
1862 Union gun boats and
legal description of James C. Barrs’
County was divided from
Barrs volunteered on at
least three different occasions to serve the Confederate States of
Barrs volunteered in
the fall of 1861 for the Brooks County Militia, which became a part of
Battalion in the spring (February) of 1862. He enlisted in the 11th
Calvary State Reserves. He then enlisted again on
Barrs and his brother,
William W. Barrs, served together first in the Brooks County Militia.
Brooks County Militia was called into service during the spring of 1862
became a part of the 81st Battalion in which officers were elected and
commissioned by the Governor on
James C. Barrs and his
oldest son James Henry L. Barrs (Born 1845 in Lowndes County Georgia)
with his brother William W. Barrs rode their horses to Quitman
James C. Barrs enlisted
then assigned to a
James C. Barrs, born 1821 and Martha Elizabeth Land born, 1821 had the following children:
Henry L. Barrs born 1845
Taylor Barrs born 1848
Isaac Newton Barrs born 1849 Lowndes County GA d. Lafayette Co FL
Marion Barrs born 1852
Wesley Barrs born 1853
Barrs born 1857
Barrs born 1859 Brooks
County GA d.
James C. Barrs' CSA Military Service
James C. Barrs, along with his brother, William Barrs, was in the Brooks County Georgia Militia as part of the 81st Battalion during 1861-62. He then enlisted August 4, 1863 at age 42 in Quitman, Brooks County, GA in Captain Wiley W. Groover's 11th Georgia Calvary, Georgia State Guards of Company "D" Confederate States of America for a regular enlistment of six months, as did his oldest son James Henry L. Barrs (Born 1845 in Lawndes County Georgia.) and his brother William W. Barrs.
Barrs was 5' 7"
tall, had a dark complexion, dark hair and blue eyes. He was admitted
He was captured at twilight, along with the rest of the Fort McAllister garrison, on December 13, 1864 and sent to Hilton Head Provost Hospital with Typhoid Fever to be treated and await transport to a Northern Military Prison.James C. Barrs was 5'7" tall, had dark skin and hair, and blue eyes. James C. Barrs then on May 6, 1864 enlisted again in Quitman, Georgia in Company E, 1st Regiment (Symon's) of the Georgia Infantry State Reserves CSA for the duration of The War. He was appointed 4th Sergeant. His Company served at the City Lines in Savannah, GA from May 6, 1864 through June 30, 1864. They then served at Camp Fleetwood from July through August of 1864. His Company's final billet was at Fort McAllister, GA from September until the fort was captured on December 13, 1864 by Union General Sherman's forces.
"UNDAUNTED: The History of
By William Christman
fort acted as the right
flank anchor in the line of earthen fortifications that protected the
fort was to deny the
Union Navy its passage up the
Atlantic and Gulf
Railroad, a major supply and communications line, crossed the
separate naval attacks
by Union forces (some intense and some limited to a few shots fired)
Excerpt: Pg 58 - 72
Sherman intended to
commander of the forces in
men took measures to make
The men also cleared the trees behind the fort to a distance of nearly a mile for a clear line of fire, and the wooden buildings were torn down so the Federals could not use then for cover. Now, the area behind the fort would not provide any cover to Union troops. To further impede a land attack, the Confederates laid a row of abattis (A defensive obstacle formed by felled trees with sharpened branches buried in the ground at an angle facing the enemy) in the open area. The most deadly obstruction however was the artillery shells that were placed just under the surface of the ground at the foot of the glacis. (A gentle slope or incline that runs downward from a fortification) Anyone walking over these land mines (or "torpedoes" as they were called) would set off an explosion, severely maiming or killing its victims. Lastly, the Georgians dismantled the mortar battery to prevent its usage by the Federals.
Southerners also undertook measures that would
hopefully allow the garrison to survive a prolonged siege. The fort
220 pounds of hard bread and 1000 pounds of bacon shortly before
determined the Confederates were to deny the
Yankees possession of
December, the Union Army
rested its left wind on the
King's Bridge rebuilt,
I gave General Hazen, in person, his orders to march
down the right bank of the
to assault and carry
I knew it to be strong in heavy artillery, as against an
approach from the sea, but believed it open and weak to
I explained to General Hazen fully on his action
depended the safety of the whole army and the success
of the campaign.
Hazen commanded the 2nd
Division, which consisted of nearly 4000 men from five states, many of
seen action since the early stages of the war. General Sherman felt a
attachment to the 2nd Division. He proudly noted that Hazen's men made
"the same old division I had commanded at
the morning of
Hazen enjoyed some of the
sights on his long journey down to
Along their route, Hazen reported passing:
...the old McAllister mansion, called Strother Hall... There
was their home, but now they had gone. Major General
Judson H. Kilpatrick's Cavalry had been there before us,
and the contents of the house were strewn upon the floors
or scattered about the lawn...The Negro servants showed
no disposition to put things right again, thinking perhaps,
that it would only invite further mischief.
Federals passed the old
Hardwick town site, they came upon a narrow causeway that was bordered
Once captured, the Confederate told everything. Major Anderson frustratingly wrote:
"The picket imparted the fact that the causeway was
studded with torpedoes in time to prevent their explosion.
He also acquainted them with the strength of the garrison,
and the best approaches to it."
After the Federals had removed the torpedoes, Hazen left eight regiments as the causeway and proceeded with the remaining three brigades (nine regiments) toward the fort. During the late morning, some of the Union troops came within sight of the earthworks. During the Union approach, activity between the two opposing forces heated up somewhat as gunfire was exchanged between the two hostile forces.
miles across the
On reaching the rice-mill at Cheeve's [sic], I found a guard
and a couple of twenty-pound Parrott guns, of Dr. Gres's
battery, which fired an occasional shot toward Fort
McAllister, plainly seen over the salt-marsh, about three
occasionally sent a heavy shot back across the marsh to
where we were, but other wise everything about the place
looked as peaceable and quite as on the Sabbath.
The signal-officer had built a platform on the ridge-pole
of the rice mill.
Leaving our horses behind the stacks of rice-
straw, we all got on the roof of a shed attached to the mill,
where from I could communicate with the signal-officer
above and at the same time look out toward Ossabaw Sound
point in the day, Major
Anderson came to a logical decision. Having heard no word from Hardee
I determined under the circumstances and not withstanding
the great disparity of numbers between the garrison and the
attacking forces, to defend the fort to the last extremity...
By this time the Confederates began to fire their field guns at the distant Federals, but with little effect. Hazen began to deploy his skirmishers and sharpshooters despite the Southern cannonaded. The skirmishers advanced "at a run [and] readily approached within 2000 yards [of the fort], and by throwing themselves flat on the ground were well concealed by the high grass, and could pick off the Confederate gunners at their leisure, readily silencing the fire of the fort."
Another account of the sharpshooters said:
I shall never forget...how Sergeant J. A. Saunier, when
we reached a point near enough to fire, said 'Watch me
make the Jonnies get off the works,' and he brought to
his shoulder his trusty rifle and open the fire...
The garrison quickly began to feel the effect of the sharpshooters.
Major Anderson noted:
The guns being en barbette, the detachment serving them
were greatly exposed to the fire of the enemy's sharp shooters.
To such and extent was this [the] case, that in one instance,
out of a detachment of eight men three were killed and three
The Federal skirmish line was very heavy, and
the fire so close and rapid that it was at times impossible to
work our guns. My sharpshooters did all in their power, but
were entirely too few to suppress this galling fire upon the
their harassing fire on the beleaguered Confederate work, the 2nd
slowly deployed around
ordered his men to move no
closer than 600 yards to the work---just out of the effective range of
Confederate rifle fire. The Federals were determined to form a
It was evident, cut off from all support, and with no possible
hope of reenforcements from any quarter, that holding the
fort was simply a question of time. There was but one alternative,..
death or captivity.
about one-half mile of the fort, in a piece of timber.
The regiment formed in a line of battle and was ordered
remain there on the banks of the
the division formed on us.
Another account of the deployment was from Y. R. Davies, of the 70th Ohio Infantry. He wrote:
In a southerly direction from the fort lay an open field,
1000 yards more or less in width and almost perfectly
level. There was no fence, but it was skirted by a pine
at the edge of which the 70th
in a line of battle, with another regiment on its right and
one on its left.
Hazen deployed his division with the 2nd Brigade on the extreme left,
the 3rd Brigade in the center, and the 1st Brigade on the far right.
While his men enveloped the fort, Hazen decided against an appeal to the rebel's better nature. "I made no formal demand for surrender," wrote Hazen, "believing that it would merely advertise our intentions, and be met by a boastful refusal."
However, the Georgians did their best to hinder the Yankees. A Union soldier's account recalls the effectiveness of one Southern bullet:
While waiting for the First and Third Brigades to come
into position about the fort, and while making observations
as to the ground and fortifications over which we were
soon to charge, a rebel bullet came flying at us, which
Captain John H. Groce of the 30th
instantly, and wounding Colonel W. S. Jones, commander of
the 2nd Brigade.
Colonel James S. Martin, leader of the 111th Illinois Infantry Regiment, received orders to assume command of the 2nd Brigade almost immediately after Jones fell wounded.
the number of Federal
troops may have seemed overwhelming, their assignment to capture
The Right Brigade found itself behind a long stream, or
sluice, and was a long time getting across and into position.
This was especially annoying, as Gen. Sherman's last injunction
was not to find myself behind any creek, so that we could
The sun was now fast going down behind a grove of Water
Oaks...General Sherman, from his position at the rice mill
on the opposite side of the river, walked nervously to and
fro, turning quickly now and then from viewing the scene
of conflict, to observe the sun sinking behind the tree tops.
No longer willing to bear the suspense, he said: "Signal
General Hazen that he must carry the fort by assault
to-night, if possible." The little flag waved and fluttered
in the evening air, the answer came: "I am ready and will
assault at once!"
The sun was rapidly declining, and I was dreadfully impatient.
At that very moment some one discovered a faint cloud of
smoke and an object gliding, as it were, along the horizon
above the tops of the sedge toward the sea, which little by
little grew till it was pronounced to be the smoke-stack of
a steamer coming up the river...Soon the flag of the United
States was plainly visible, and our attention was divided
between this approaching steamer and the expected assault...
gunboat pushed its way up
gunboat's men sent a signal
"Who are you?"
"General Sherman," came back the reply.
The boat asked: "Can we run up? Is the fort taken?"
The signal station sent: "No, Attack underway."
time General Sherman
and the Navy exchanged signals, the 2nd Division drew up for battle.
before the attack began, the commander of the 70th
"My comrades, knowing that you have been prompt in the
discharge of every duty, I deem it a waste of words to urge
upon you the importance of continuing to do so." Then pointing
to the fort, he continued: "You see what is before you, and you
know your duty."
These words were hardly spoken when John Compton, the
who, up to the fall of
as regimental teamster, therefore had never been directly
in any of the numerous battles, approached
Phillips and said: "Colonel, you know I am not used to this kind
of work; please excuse me." He asked "John, were it in my
power God knows I would gladly excuse every man in this regiment."
General Hazen decided that three regiments from each brigade would actually assault the fort. The other nine regiments were to be held in reserve if needed "---an overwhelming force for the work at hand."
The time was p. m. General Hazen felt it was time for the attack to get underway. He wrote:
I waited until nearly sundown, and then, the Right Brigade
still being reported not ready, determined to assault with
the other six regiments. Each officer and man was instructed
to advance rapidly, but in order until the enemy opened, and
then to charge with a rush, every man for himself.
The 'assembly' was then sounded by the bugle three
successive times, followed by 'forward', and as with a
great impulse the line advanced. To my great surprise
and joy, the Right Brigade, under Col. Theodore Jones
moved out accurately at the same moment. It had crossed
the stream and formed inline just in time to receive the order.
A warning answer came from the enemy in the roar of heavy
artillery---and so the battle opened. Out from the encircling
woods our lines moved, with bright bayonets, and our flag
waving proudly to the breeze. Then the fort seemed alive
with flame; quick jets of fire shooting out from all its sides,
while the white smoke first covered the place and then rolled
over the glacis. Our line moved steadily on with measured steps,
unfaltering. Now the flag goes down! David Roderick fell mortally
wounded, with the colors in hand; they are quickly gathered up,
and a moment longer and our flag is in the front; the line does
Davies of the 70th
When within about 150 yards of the fort we opened fire and
soon silenced their guns. Some 50 yards from the fort we
crossed a line of torpedoes buried in the sand and John
body was mangled almost beyond recognition.
The torpedoes caused numerous Union casualties. Some died in the explosions, others miraculously survived the blasts. One luck soldier was Sergeant Lyman Hardman of the 30th Ohio Infantry Regiment. Hardman replayed:
I had arrived near the edge of a small ditch around a mortar
bed, when I exploded a torpedo that had been place in the
ground by stepping on it.
On recovering from the effects of
the shock I found that the shoe of my left foot blown off
and the foot very badly burned. My left knee was slightly cut,
the small finger and the one next to it of my left had also cut,
and the hand burned. My face and one ear [were] considerably
cut and burned. My eyes swelled shut in a short time. The
sufferings of that night were terrible.
70th and 30th Ohio
Regiments made their way across the open field in the rear of
...the bugle was sounded, and the division advanced on the
double-quick; with cheers the enemy opened rapidly with
his inland guns, but so effective was the fire of our skirmish
line under Captain Branchmann, that altogether our regiment
had t pass over the cleared ground and climb the fence; very
little damage was done, but many in the division were blown up
with torpedoes, which the enemy had planted around the fort.
But we went right on and as the 47th regiment approached the
fort it was discovered by our officers that the enemy had
neglected to construct his line of abattis to low water mark,
and it being ebb tide, there was an unobstructed passage on
Colonial A. C. Parry immediately swung the wings of the regiment
together, and the Colonel and Major Taylor leading, we scaled
the parapets from that front with a cheer, and taking the land
batteries in flank reverse; it required two volleys from the
regiment before the enemy abandoned his guns, and he retreated
to the bomb proofs.
The blue line moved steadily forward. General Hazen advanced his men in a single line and noted that "there were not more than half a dozen casualties before reaching the line of torpedoes, which was continuous around the fort and about 100 yards in front of the entanglement.
the enemy's fire redoubled in rapidly and violence; on
and on we moved across the open field, and through
their netted abattis work. The daring streams of fire
alone told the position of the fort. On and on, down into
the great deep ditch and up the walls of the fort, not
a man in retreat, not a straggler in the line of blue. The
firing ceased; the wind lifted the smoke; a few scattering
musket shots, and sounds of battle ceased.
also went with the 70th
Between this row of shells and the fort was planted a row
of pine logs pointed outward, the butt end buried in the
sand and the limb well sharpened. Having shed their bark,
they resembled a tangle of buckhorns shining in the sun.
There was no passing this barrier until a few brave men
bending over their guns crawled under and thru, lifting
and pushing the logs apart and leaving gaps thru which
the regiment rushed.
1st and 3rd Brigades
The division was now all within the Fort, and for a short
time were all engaged in fierce hand-to-hand encounter,
fighting with the bayonet and the butt of muskets.
officer in the 47th
Colonel Parry's and Major Taylor's brave boys went on
into the fort with a yell. The Confederates were somewhat
stricken as the Yanks were coming on in the fort in a
dozen places on them with bayonets and the butt of our
muskets, and the hand to hand fighting was terrible for
a short time, and we drove them from one [bomb] proof
to the other,
Captain Brown seeing a fine looking Confederate
officer, and thinking he was the commander of the fort,
demanded his surrender, (but he was not.) The officer
handed his sward to the Captain, who asked the Confederate
officer where the fort flag was, it having been lowered
from the flag staff; for some reason he said he did not know;...
George E. Castle, USA,
Major Anderson gave the Confederate report of the action. He reported:
...the enemy made a rapid and vigorous charge upon
the works, and, succeeded in forcing their way through
the abattis, rushing over the parapet of the forty,
carrying it by storm, and, by virtue of superior numbers,
overpowered the garrison fighting gallantly to the last.
In many instances the Confederates were disarmed by
main force. The fort was never surrendered! It was
captured by overwhelming numbers.
General Hazen agreed with Major Anderson's account. The general said the Union soldiers fought "the garrison through the fort to their bomb-proofs, from which they still fought, and only succumbed as each man was individually overpowered.
One of those who bitterly resisted the Yankees was Captain Clinch. Major Anderson said of the fierce Clinch:
...when [Clinch] [was] summoned to surrender by a
captain[Captain Stephen F. Grimes, 48th
Infantry Regiment], [Clinch] responded by dealing
[Grimes] a severe blow on the head with his sabre [sic].
(Captain Clinch had previously received two gun shot
wounds in the arm). Immediately a hand to hand fight
ensued. Union privates came to the assistance of their
fellow officer, but the fearless Clinch continued to
unequal contest until he fell bleeding from eleven wounds
(three sabre wounds, six bayonet wounds, and two gun
shot wounds), from which, after severe and protracted
suffering, he has barely recovered. His conduct was so
conspicuous, and his cool bravery so much admired, as to
elicit the praise of the enemy and even of General
General Hazen also encountered the astonishing Captain Clinch. Hazen said:
As I leaped upon the parapet, the first man I saw was
Captain Clinch, who commanded a light battery used
for defense on the land side and temporarily thrown
into the fort for that purpose. He was lying on his back,
shot thru the arm, with a bayonet wound in his chest,
and contused by the butt of a gun. He recognized and
spoke to me. He was the brother-in-law of the United
General Robert Anderson, and I had known him before
the war. Contrary to my expectations, he finally recovered.
top of Cheves's Mill,
General Sherman and his officers were distracted by the sound of
gunfire n the
Almost at that instant of time, we say Hazen's troops
come out of the ark fringe of the woods that encompassed
the fort, the lines dressed as on parade, with colors flying,
moving forward with quick, steady pace.
was then all alive, its big guns belching forth dense clouds
of smoke, which soon enveloped our assaulting lines. One
color went down, but was up in a moment. As the lines advanced,
faintly seen in the white sulphurous [sic] smoke, there was
a pause, a cessation of fire; the smoke cleared away, and
the parapets were blue with our men, who fired their muskets
in the air and shouted so that we actually heard them, or felt
instantly sent by signal-officer to our navy friends on the
approaching gunboats, for a point of timber had shut Fort
McAllister from their view, and they had not seen the action
at all, but must have heard the cannonading.
During the progress of the assault, our little group on Cheeves's
[sic] mill hardly breathed; but no sooner did we see our flags
on the parapet than I exclaimed, in the language of the poor
Negro at Cobb's plantation, 'This nigger will have no sleep this
assault was over in fifteen
minutes. The Union soldiers captured the fort so quickly because of
overwhelming numbers (25 to 1) mostly, and because of the weakness of
casualties were light.
Hazen's men suffered 24 men killed, 110 wounded---most of the
resulted from the torpedoes. The Confederates lost 16 killed, and 28
CSA Fort McAllister fell...
Hilton Head Union Hospital
Hilton Head Island, South Carolina
Union Military Provost Hospital
After he was captured at Fort McAllister, Union army doctors hospitalized James C. Barrs with Typhoid Fever in the Hilton Head Union Military Hospital. Later he was sent to Fort Delaware Military Prison until the end of the war.
South Carolina was among the richest of States, and Hilton Head Island was responsible for several millionaires. South Carolina was the 1st State to secede from the Union on December 20, 1860. The Civil War began on April 12, 1861 when Confederate cannonaders firing on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor. In January 1861, General Robert E. Lee was assigned command of the coasts of South Carolina, Georgia, and East Florida. By October of 1861, 77 Union ships sailed from Virginia to Port Royal. On board were 13,000 troops, 1500 horses, 500 surfboats, and 1,000 laborers to build a town and fortress for the blockade of the South.
In November, 1861, after surviving a hurricane off Cape Hatteras, the small armada circled Port Royal Sound, firing at all settlements in the area. By noon of that day, on November 7th, the Confederates knew the battle for the area was lost, and withdrew before the attacking forces of the Union.
The Yankees were here to stay until the War's end. Fort Mitchel was built in 1862. It was named for General Ormsby Mitchel, a well-liked leader, who died of malaria that year.
Eventually, Union Forces reached 50,000 on the Island. The blockade of Savannah was accomplished, preventing the Confederacy from exporting cotton to Europe and importing supplies from France. Hilton Head was Headquarters for the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. The Island became the transfer point for prisoners of war and the wounded as well as Union Soldiers on their way to battle and tons of supplies.
Union Military Prison
Located on Pea Patch Island, Delaware
"The Andersonville Prison of the North"
Fort Delaware is located on Pea Patch Island, Delaware. It was used as a Union Prisoner of War Prison to house captured CSA soldiers. It opened for prisoners on April 1862. More than 22, 700 Confederate prisoners were confined there.
James C. Barrs was confined in the Enlisted Prisoner's Barracks Number 14 until his release at the end of The War in 1865.
Of these prisoners, 2,346 died at Fort Delaware. It was known as the "Andersonville of the North."
The dead were transported across the river to New Jersey, near Fort Mott, which is located near Harrisonville, Salem County NJ for burial. The dead were buried in trenches, and individual identification was lost.
Today a monument stands at the site of the burials with a bronze plaque listing the names of the interred. Luckily James C. Barrs’ name was not engraved on that plaque.
Grandfather James C. Barrs was interned in the 'enlisted
barracks number 14' after the capture of the Fort McAllister (Georgia)
until his release after the War Between the States had ended.
supplied to Al Barrs, Jr. by The
Samual Lewis Moore, CSA Vetera
following story is the
account of the personal experience of a living Confederate CSA war
Samuel Lewis Moore. Samual
young age of 15 years
Samuel Moore followed his brother, Spencer Moore, and enlisted in the
the South in
There was nothing but a marsh between us and the bridge, and we boys stood on the battery walls and saw the fight, which lasted about an hour. We knew that our time would come the next day, and the necessary preparations were made to give Mr. Sherman as warm a reception as we could. The roll was called the next morning and 155 men answered for duty. About in the morning the enemy entered the woods and begun to form in line of battle. We could see the Yankees behind the big trees near the little dairy (McAllister Dairy) and the dairy itself was as full of them as it could hold.
Our sharpshooters would take a crack at every "Blue Coat" that exposed himself. One of the boys asked permission to put a cannon ball through the dairy, which was granted, and a thirty-pound rifle shot was sent through the center. Then business picked up!" "At the bugle of the enemy sounded for the charge and it took them exactly four minutes to capture the fort, as we had only 155 men and they numbered 9,000. Our casualties were 55 killed and 60 wounded. The enemy's loss was 200 killed and 250 wounded. The last shot fired was a 12-pound Howitzer cannon. The man who was to fire the cannon had hold of the lanyard and was ordered to let it go by a Yankee officer, before the white flag was raised. The man replied, 'I'm not taking orders from you yet.'
officer shot him with his
pistol and the weight of the body, when he fell, pulled the lanyard.
the enemy was not three feet from the mouth of the cannon and the ball
space through the crowd. We killed more men than the number on our side
battle. General Sherman made the McAllister homestead his headquarters
wounded from both sides were taken there for medical treatment. I was
sick list and was placed on a bunk with a badly wounded Yankee boy who
before morning. I told the nurse the boy was dead and he said 'Alright
take him out directly.' I guess he forgot it for the body was still
I awoke the next morning. The nurse came and said he was sorry he had
removed it. I told him that was alright, it had not disturbed me at
the prisoners, were carried to Hilton Head,
I was at
were lost over board,
but I did not feel the loss of them until I reached
My appearance did not dampen the joy of my mother and the home folks, however, when they finally realized I was home at last. I guess Sherman made a good, off-hand shot at it, when he made his statement about war, but he had never been hungry, nor thirsty, nor in prison or then he would have said 'War is hell' and then some."
James C. (Jim) Barrs' family in The Nankin District of Brooks County, GA had given him up for dead, when in October 1865 lice and vermin ridden he reached home. His son John Wesley said that he stripped outside, bathed, put on clean clothes and burned his old clothing before going into their home.
Barrsville Established 1870-1871
James C. Barrs served on a committee to help destitute widows from The War during April of 1866 that was chaired by his brother William W. Barrs. (See page 8 "Brooks County Georgia: Echoes of Its People.")
shortly after the 1870
federal Census James C. Barrs sent several of his sons to the region of
County Florida to purchase land, clear fields and build housing for the
livestock near abandoned Ellisville Florida, Columbia County Florida. The following year the entire Barrs family
loaded their belongings onto wagons and traveled to the
family traveled down
the Withlacoochee River on a Cotton Barge to the Suwannee River and
downriver or south to the mouth of the Santa Fe River on the east bank
Suwannee. They then traveled up the
thereafter we believe
James C. Barrs bought Mr. Ellis' old General Store at what had earlier
called Ellisville Florida and became a general merchant as well as a
Apparently there were a number of merchants in this little pioneer
town. Anticipations were high that the
railroad would be built through these small towns strung along the "
afterward old Ellisville
became Barrsville in 1871. In 1871 a United States Post Office was
in Barrsville. Fortunately for we Barrs family history buffs a brief
and timeline of Barrsville still exists in the book “History
151: To the
Page 152: Barrsville, on the Old Military and Telegraph Road, lay some fourteen (14) miles from Lake City and Eight Miles from the Santa Fe River and had originally been settled by Giles Underwood Ellis in 1845 and was first called "Ellisville, FL."
Barrsville, FL was regarded as being in an area suitable for orange cultivation as was Mount Tabor located south of Lake City, FL
Barrsville United States Post Office History:
The US Post Office in Barrsville, Columbia County, FL existed intermittently from June 8, 1871 to March 9, 1882.
The first US Post Office in the area was established on January 29, 1843 as the Ellisville US Post Office. The Ellisville US Post Office was discontinued on September 29, 1843.
The US Post Office was reestablished as the Barrsville Post Office on June 8, 1871 and the name was changed on January 3, 1872, to Barrsville U.S. Post Office.
Barrsville US Post Office was discontinued on December 29, 1872, but was reestablished on February 2, 1875.
The Barrsville US Post Office was again discontinued on Mar 9th 1882 and moved to Mt. Tabor, FL. It was reestablished on March 26, 1883.
discontinued at Mt. Tabor on April 22,1887 then Reestablished July 6,
was then discontinued on July 31, 1904 and moved to Fort White, FL.
Barrsville Shooting 1872
Little information exists on James C. Barrs and his family until the winter of 1872 when a fatal shooting occurred on the porch (“Piazza”) of the James C. Barrs, General Store in Barrsville Columbia County Florida.
JIM and JOHN BARRS SHOOT
(Please remember that this is not a 'legal transcript' of the trial!)
Mr. John Arthur Carrell
personally wrote the following notes of the trial. He was the brother
of William Carrell and Charles Carrell, who were put on trial for the
murder of Jno. Barrs of SC. The original copy is in the
possession of Mr. J. B. Carrell of
I want to thank Evie and Sam Lamb for obtaining, keying and supplying a copy for this Barrs History Record. Anyone having the 'official' transcript of this trial is asked to contact or e-mail a copy for posting to Al Barrs, Jr. at firstname.lastname@example.org
NOTES OF EVIDENCE:
State vs. Carroll
The State [of
of James C. Barrs, William W. Barrs)
(NOTE: James C. Barrs had apparently passed away before the murder trial that took place in
J. W. Perry sworn says, I was at Ellisville (Barrsville) at the _(time)_ of Jno Barr (Barrs) on
Plack came to my store and told me to go back for there was going to be trouble - it was Jim Barrs. store. I told him to go.
He said he had rather not go, that Wingit didn't like him very much and might shoot him. He thought I had better go and I went.
The back part of Barrs’ store was near the front of my store (Parker’s store). The road that went from our store to their store had a curve in it and I went nearer (short-cut) way by path. I went in the back door and Jim Barrs and Bill Carrol had hold of each other and I ran right in. The house had shed room and I went in at door of shed room. Jim Barrs had Bill Carrol pushed up against a stove.
When I got to the back door Jim Barr (Barrs) said, “damn your masonary” after that I don't rember what anyone said till the went out (on the) piazza. (I) Don't know as those are the exact words that Jim Barr (Barrs) said as well as I remember there was Beaufort Carrol, Chas Carrol, D. Wingrt and myself there.
Rack Carrol came out with pistol in hand and Jim Barr (Barrs) turned to him and said "You damn little son of a bitch you try and shoot me?" And, Beaufort Carrol said, "Don't curse my bro (brother) for s of a b." Beau Carrol jerked out his knife and Jim Barr (Barrs) pulled out his pistol.
There may have had
___ out. I caught hold of Beau with
right hand and Jim Barr (Barrs) with other (hand) and held them apart
while I was holding them a pistol fired off. (It was) Jim Barrs’
I jumped out in yard and fell. When I got up the men (Jim Barrs
Barrs) were shot. The first I noticed was Chas Carrol going towards our
and Jim Barr (Barrs) going N (north) on piazza. The (Jim Barrs’)
lay N and S and Jim Barr (Barrs) had his face toward house and when
off I saw bullet in S end of house in piazza plate. I think
probably about 12 feet from where bullet went in plate of house.
It was a
derringer - it was a single barrel pistol - it shoots one time. I
there was trouble between the men and I went there to stop it -
pistol fired I knew I couldn't stop it and there was no use to endanger
life. I didn't see anything but what I knew to endanger my lief -
was a gun passed from one hand to another but am not positive about -
Barr (Barrs) handed it to Chas Carrol saw gun in Chas Carrol hand
shooting. He was outside the piazza before the shooting.
I don't remember seeing Chas Carrol before I took hold of Beaufort and Jim Barr (Barrs). I had been there a half hour before and 3 min and knew there was bad blood between em (them) and thought someone was going to be hurt. John Barr (Barrs) was in the door (of his store).
I heard shots fired but they were so fast I couldn't distinguish probably a doz guns and the blood was streaming down Jno Barrs side and I ran to him.
I told him to let me cord his arm and he said no - no he was dead. I told him I could stop the blood and Bill Carrol said let me help you.
Willis stop the blood and Jno Barrs cursed him. Jno Barr (Barrs) said, “no you shot me with my pistol after I was wounded you damned coward” or something to that effect. He says. “Plac a dead cock in the ___ by God” and Plack told him (Jno Barrs) no how are you shot. “Chas Carrol shot me with a gun and Bill Carrol shot me 2 with a pistol,” (Jno Barrs said). I showed him (Jno Barrs) where he was shot.
I think Jno (Barrs)
was in the house before the other
action. He was sitting on the counter, or standing on counter it was
time I saw Jno Barr (Barrs) before I saw (him) standing in the door
running down his arm. I don't think Bill Carrol went out when
Beau C to
Jim Barr (Barrs) was having trouble. I was between Beau and Jim
my face was turned from house and did not see what was going on behind
X X X
Witness makes diagrahm of it (buildings and shooting positions) Chas Carrol had a gun in hand when I saw him going towards (James Barrs’) store.
diagrahm to Jury a min or two.
It hadn't a very short time after the difficulty had subsided in house till I went out on piazza. After I jumped from piazza I saw Chas Car running with a gun. Saw Bill Carrol by side. Bill Car said he didn't shoot him twice with pistol. (Reply) When _ma(?) Jno Barr (Barrs) in room a man said Jim Barr (Barrs) wanted me Bill Carrol came to
I didn't see B Carrol do anything else after the shooting that day. I have no idea how many shoots were fired - about a doz - rapid succession. I don't know which was last gun fired in this difficulty. I think Bill Carrol was there when I first went there. I didn't have any trouble in stopping dif no one asside me. They were all drinking Jim Barr (Barrs) was drinking a right smart. Jno Barr was sick. There had difficult that ___. They were quarreling Jim Barr (Barrs) was in quarrel - Jno Barr (Barrs) was in room. Ain't possitive if Jim Barr (Barrs) was in diff. Present impression was Bill Car stoped Wingrt from hitting me.
I don't remember what
time of day Bill Carrol got there
that day. I saw 3 pis (pistols) immediately after shooting,
Carrol, Bill Carrol and the small pistol of Jim Barr (Barrs).
had a big pis (pistol) - Jno Barr (Barrs) said it was his. Don't
what Bill Carrol did with pistol. Don't know whether any of em
discharged. I don't know Chas Carrol shot that day. I know
was before and after shooting. Jno Barr (Barrs) remarked
Bill Carrol shot him twice.
you not use before Judge White in a
Habeus Corpus proceeding in this case at this last term this language
time I saw Jno Barrs was wounded I went to him. Will Carrol said
let me help you. Barr (Jno Barrs) said to him "no you God damned
coward you shot me twice after I was wounded".
I think he said "with my own pistol". Bill Carrol said, "I did not do it". Plack Farnell came up and Barr (Barrs) said "Plack a dead cock in the pit by God."
To which question the state by its counsel objected. The court then and there made use this remark in the presence of the Jury.
I don't think the
present statement of the witness differs
materially from the statement embodied in the question of counsels.
the same as I have said here.
you state before Jud Jno F. White in
the habeus corpus
proceeding referred to that Jno Barr (Barrs) said to Plack Farnell that Bill Carroll sho (shoot) him twice with his own pistol - ans. (answer) Don't know whether I did or not. I am not positive - I don't remember that I swore before Judge White or not that Jim Barr (Barrs) held up his hands and showed him where he was shot.
At the time that Bill Carrol wanted to help me bind his arm that Barr (Jno Barrs) made remark. I think I put a hand on was not long. I think he had no coat. I think Bill Carrol was present at time of remark to Farnell. Don't remember if Bill Carrol made any reply to (Jno) Barrs remark. I caught hold of (Jno) Barrs arm and saw it was shot all to pieces. Did not pull off his clothes saw wound of other Barr (Jim Barrs) shot in breast and shoulder.
Jno Barr(Barrs) was
shot in left armpit and hand.
Dr. Peeler sworn says: I am a physician. I was called as a phy before his (Jno Barrs’) death (on) 23-Nov-(18)72. He was shot in ___. I saw him about sundown. I saw Jno Barr (Barrs). He was on bed in room in Jim Barr (Barrs) house (with his) arm corded Farnell had a stick in cord. Found bone in elbow was shevered shoulder to ________.
They seemed to have gone through his arm gun shot wounds 5 or 6 and did not find any other except in right hand between forefing and thumb did not examine body or breast. Suppose those on hand and arm was all he had gun shot wounds next morn early I returned and found he ws spitting blood knew it could not be from wound in sholr (shoulder) and arm. The arm was amputated clean clothing upon him. No sign of hemmorage from arm. Next morning found wound in left side. I think caused spitting blood - wound were from direct in front - wound in side seemed to be side shot.
Ball roughed em. Ball must have entered stomach from way he was spitting blood. Am satisfied Jno Barr (Barrs) died from those wounds - side wound was mortal. I was there when he (Jno Barrs) died - know he died from those wounds - died 23 - Nov - (1872).
Columbia Co, State
Robt Martin sworn says:
I was at Barrsville Nov 23-72 in ___ par (part) of this co (county) known as Ellisville now Barrsville. Mr. Jno & Jas Barr (Barrs) was shot that day - heard guns fire - I had seen Bill Carroll at my house prev to shooting. He said here that Jim Barr (Barrs) had cursed him for a damned thieving s of a b.
He said it was right hard to take and said nothing farther. And asked me what I though of it. He used no further words. I am certain that no other words were used.
Carrol not also say that he wouldn't
take it? Overruled!
you satisfied that you have stated all
the words used by
Carrol at that time? If not, what other did he use.
Ans: I think he said I would not stand it. It was in the morning that the conver (conversation) took place. Shooting took place in mid afternoon. I was at Perry's store when shoot commenced. I went up where shooting took place saw Jno Barr (Barrs) ___. I saw B. Carrol there. He was in room where Jno Barr (Barrs) was in a shed room. I met Chas Carrol as I was going there between 2 stores he had a shotgun - didn't see Bill Carrol have anything at time had a pis (pistol) don't know where he got large pis.
Jno Barr (Barrs) make any remark as to
Carrol shot him. Don't recollect whether Barr (Jno Barrs) said Carrol
shot him (but)
did not hear Jno Barr (Barrs) remark Bill Carrol shot him.
It was about (in the afternoon) when Bill Carrol was (at) my house. Bill Carrol lives a little SW. B. Carrol did not have to pass my house to go to Barrsville - by himself -horseback. I got to Barrsville about 2 o'clock - did not see Bill C (Carrol) when I got there got there 1 1/2 hour - hadn't seen any of Carrol - any Bar (Barrs), D Wigrt (or) Ike Hart - don't know how he went or which direction he went to Barrs’. I live 2 miles (from) Carrrol –
1 1/2 miles from (Jim) Barrs. My house wasn't on road to (Jim) Barrs. I know Shep Hodge, Shep Hodge lived a little NE of Barrsville about 6 m (miles). Carrol stayed at my house 1/2 h (hour) got down (off his horse) and came in. I was making sugar - don't remem any other conversation with him. I think he told me something about a bl (barrel) of Fl (Flour) he bought from Jim Bar (Barrs) and Jim B pt (put) it in cart and told him he 'd have to pay for he couldn't have it at that price. He said Jno Barr (Barrs) cursed him for a damed thieves of a b and it was hard to take.
I am certain he said
so I jst (just) said that Barr (Jim
Barrs) called him a ther (thieving) s of a b. (Mr.) Black did ask
he did say it was right hard to take. I didn't recollect till Mr.
refreshed my mind. I can recall it now independent of what has been
J. W. Tolbart sworn says:
I knew Jno Barrs in his lifetime. I saw him in last sickness he was shot. I
went to see him. I was sent for. He (Jno Barrs) was lying on bed (in Jim Barrs house) suffering from a gun shot (shotgun) wounds and pistols. I was J of P (Justice of the Peace) at time. I took a statement from him (Jno Barrs) as to how he rec'd wounds - he detailed to me how it ocured in state'mt he was suffering a good ___ from wnds (wounds). Best of my recollection he said he was satisfied he wouldn't get over these wounds - I tired to console him. He (Jno Barrs) said there was no chance - con - on Sat night - he (Jno Barrs) died Mon about . I don't rembr any min having pr- I arrv'd after dark same day he was shot - I went in house as soon as I got there went into his (Jno Barrs) presence (wound man). I took hold of his (Jno Barrs) arm and held it and told him I had come in cop'y of an officer & to make an inquiry as ____ wanted him (Jno Barrs) to make a statement I don't recolect first words.
I remained all night
and next day - got there a little
after dark had been there but little while before he said he was going
He went on to state he was not going to get over (his wounds). I
console him - I think that was all about dying he said. When I first
him he said he had been innocent of the murder - a set of damn cowards
brothers) - it was to that effect - he appeared to have right smart
voice seemed strong - talk rationally & intelligently - Jno Barrs
felt satisfied he was going to die. The first words I rember him
was that he was innocently murdered by a set of damn cowards. I
think I was minister of the gospel or exorter - there was an
by Mr. Barr (James C. Barrs). Don't know what had become of it. I
diligent search. The affidavit was made in reference to shooting of
Dr. Peeler recalled: I was with him (Jno Barrs) from dark till on Sat night. I was a minister of the gospel. (Jno Barrs) Did not ask for prayer. I was with him Sunday and made no request for prayer was with him 2 or 3 h (hours) in mor (morning) & and 3 h in aft. He died between 12 or - the only remark he made on the subject of dying was on Monday mor (morning) when he said "I'll be game (until) the last. I carried a minister there he was the regular pastor.
Mr. Tolbart - Mr. Barr (Jno Barrs) swore, “to the best of my memory I was in his (Jim Barrs’) back room of the store preparing to take a shave - there had been some difficulty previous, which I thought was settled. I heard the fuss & shooting in front of store.”
“I went to the front
door - just as I reaced the door I was
Charlie Carrol with a shot gun who (he) was standing on the ground in front of (Jim Barrs’) store - I turned sorter around inside the store & was shot by Wm Carrol. who was inside of store and opened fire on me with pistol to best of my recollection twice. I had no arms about me and & did not shoot any.”
I issued a warrant for Bill Carrol (and) he was arrested. He (Bill Carrol) made his escape after (being) arrested - Jno Barr (Barrs) died - on Mon about . I went by position - about 10 o'cloc I think I was below house & store when I heard he was dead - it was just about that time he, Carrol, made his escape after - I know where (Jin) Barrs’ store was - Columbia Co. St. Fla. - I am satisfied Plac Farnell was present when this statement was made. I don't recolect (Jno) Barrs said Carrol shot him with his own pistol. I think Barr (Barrs) told me he had a pis (pistol) & it was lying on counter or shelf. I don't know when Bill Carrol was arrested under pres pros - I had no formal trial when Bill Carrol was arrested by me. I don't recolect if he demanded a trial.
I commited him to jail upon evidence of Jno Barr (Barrs) & told him if Judge would get him out on ha cor - he didn't demand an examination. I don't know if I have assisted in the prosecution - I have the kindest feeling for Mr. Carrol.
I recolect having met you on certain occasion & told you I didn't dispose to disclose my evidence till required by law I refused to tell anyone what my testimony (would be until) till I went before Judge (John) White. I did not tell Black ____! Bar (Barrs). I never told anyone what the declares were - I think I told Judge White that Plack Farnell was there - I am certain he was there. I have talked with Mr. Barr (Jim Barrs) about this case - I've never communicated to defense counsel or any - I gave you (counsel defense) some insight - I've been with Mr. Barr (Jim Barrs), Black and Jud Ashby a good ___ board at same hotel with Plack Farnell is dead, died last August.
I'm a farmer am not a
preacher - used to exhort a little
- ____ - I was approached that concerning my evidence
was arrested last time was approached by Mr. Shipling (?)
J. W. Perry recalled says - the store that the shooting took place was in Col. Co. Fla. Barrs dwelling was about 100 yards from (his) store.
James Knight sworn says - I did not know Jno Barrs in lifetime. I know he was killed and died. I was at Ellisville when he died. Bill Carrol was under arrest when Barr (Jno Barrs) died. He died the day Barr (Jno Barrs) died. Barr (Jno Barrs) died about . They held an inquest and directly after that was over he (Bill Carrol) made his escape. Beaufort Carrol was a juror on the inquest. He got on his mare and rode off. Beau brought her to him or near him. Beau is cousin to Bill - was not present at ct (court) Tolbart held.
I don't know when he
(Mr. Talbart) held his court (and) did
not hold court before he (Jno Barrs) died - Don't know whether he held
before inquest. Old man Crepp & Jack Small was guarding him.
W. Barrs, Jim Barrs’ youngest brother of Brooks Co GA)
sworn says, “I'm a bro (brother) to Jas (Jim or James C. Barrs) &
Jno Barr (Barrs).
I saw Jno B. (Barrs) in last illness.
I was with him (Barrs) when he
died. Barrsville was not his home. Was here on a
from S. C. (
Went back in to the
room where Jno (Barrs) was in about 2
hours. As soon as I went into room he called me to him - says he
“I'm dying can’t this bleeding be stopped?” I told him I could do
nothing. He says, “I have in Ex (?) of (?) at Gains (bank? of
then asked him to tell me the circumstance of the shooting.
he knew there was no chance for reco (recovery) & he told me to
tell his father
the circum & where he wanted to be buried. He said there had
fuss in the store betw Jas Barr (Barrs) & the Carrols - he thought
been settled & he was fixing to shave when he heard shooting in
house (store). He (said) ran to door & just as he got in the door
shot by Chas Carrol. He said he didn't fire but turned sorter
then shot by Wm Carrol & with his own pistol - asked him why he
his pistol he said it was lying on shlf that was all in reference to
do not know why Jno Barr(Barrs) was out
here hadn't heard him say. Had been with him previous - so far as
ws just out on a visit.
says - I was present went Bill Carroll was commited
& come by Mr. Tolbart. I don't know whether he demanded a
He was brt up for a trail. He had a trial - on affidavit
& Jim Barr (Barrs). That was all testimony I reccolect in
Tolbart said from the evidence (John and James C. Barrs affidavits) he
his pocket, which was the affidavit he commited him to jail. And
Tolbart said, "I am a Barr (Barrs) man or
a friend to the Barrs."
The proceeding twenty-four pages are notes of the trial made by John Arthur Carrell who was the brother of William Carrell and Charles Carrell.
copies are in possession of J. B. Carrell,
Thus closed the life story of Great-Great Grandfather James C. Barrs...
James C. Barrs and Martha Elizabeth Land-Barrs'
G-G Grandparents of Al Barrs, Jr.
Family of James C. Barrs
JAMES C. BARRS: Head of Household Son of Arthur and Nancy Campbell - BARRS
Between 1880 & 1887
Nancy Elizabeth Campbell
Martha Elizabeth Land
(Probably buried in Ichetucknee
Cemetery Columbia Co. FL)
In: Twiggs County, Georgia
In: Suwannee County, Florida
SPOUSE: Martha Elizabeth Land
James C. Barrs
(Probably buried in Ichetucknee
Cemetery Columbia Co. FL)
In: Twiggs County, Georgia
In: Suwannee County, Florida
James Henry L. Barrs
Nancy Ann Ramsey (Born 1852 in FL)
(Buried Tampa Bay Area. Site unknown.)
In: Lowndes County, Georgia
In: Hernando County Florida
(Nancy is buried in Pinellas County Florida)
William Taylor Barrs
March 22, 1935
Feareby Jane Hodge
Oct 15 1929
(Buried in Pinewood (Cocoplum) Cemetery)
In: Lowndes County, Georgia
In: Coral Gable Dade County Florida
Isaac Newton Barrs
September 15, 1849
January 29, 1873
October 12, 1933
Mary Elizabeth Boyet (various spellings)
In: Lowndes County, Georgia
In: Day, Lafayette County, Florida
In: Day, Lafayette County, Florida
Francis Marion Barrs
May 2, 1852
May 5, 1894
Adelia Mellisa Pinkham
(Buried Suwannee County Florida)
In: Lowndes County Georgia
In: Shot-gunned in the back off his horse Suwannee Co Fl.
April 15, 1853
June 11, 1937
Laura Elma Martha Sandford
In: Jacksonville Duval County, Florida
Permelia (aka Amelia) Barrs
(Buried in Suwannee County, Florida)
In: Brooks County, Georgia
In: Hillsboro County Florida
(Buried Santa Fe Baptist Cemetery off US#27N Hildreth)
Company E, 1st Regiment
(Symon's) of the
Barrs was 5'7"
tall, had dark skin and hair, and blue eyes. James C. Barrs then on
GA 1st (Symon's) Res.,
Barrs, James C.
GA 1st (Symon's) Res.,
Confederate Regimental Index
1st Regiment Reserves "Symon's"
1st Regiment Georgia Reserves (Symon's) - 1237 men
1st (Symon's) Regiment Georgia Infantry, Reserves
Col. William R. Symons
Chatham Siege Artillery, Co. A
W. H. C. Mills
William R. Symons
Chatham Siege Artillery, Co. B
J. R. Johnson
William M. Davidson
John B. Hussey
R. A. Peoples
William C. Allen
James M. Dye
Citizen No. 8 Infantry
Charles W. Hersey
This company was originally
This regiment was organized in July 1863 to serve as local defense for six months service. The regiment was originally known as the 1st Battalion Georgia Infantry, Reserves.
11th Cavalry Georgia State Guard
In service to Georgia and the
Confederate States of America (CSA)
A Partial Regimental History
NOTE: For the entire history go to http://members.xoom.com/jagriffin/JAG.htm
NOTE: James C. Barrs
and his oldest son, James
Henry L. Barrs
brother William W. Barrs enlisted in the 11th
NOTE: In Sikafis Compendium of Confederate Armies-South Carolina and Georgia, this regiment is listed as #185 11th Georgia Infantry-State Guard. This is probably because Captain MacIntyre was in command of a State Guard Infantry Battalion (69th Georgia Militia) and in the summer of 1863 because of a man power shortage, it was changed to a Cavalry regiment. To further expand on the origins of this unit these notes on their officers prior assignments are given: Maclntyre's Battalion, Georgia State Guards, A. T. MacIntyre, Maj., Decatur Squadron, Georgia State Guards: Patrick A. McGriff, Capt., and a company appears to have served in an independent company of infantry and rolls have been so filed. It is believed the regiment was mustered out by spring of 1864.
James C. , James Henry L. and William W. Barrs' commanding officers (bold)
Field and Staff
Colonel: Archibald Thompson MacIntyre
Lieutenant Colonel: William Godfrey
Major: Patrick A. McGriff
Companies and Officers
Officers of Company D-Brooks' Cavalry
Captain: Wiley W. Groover
1st Lieutenant: Asa Kemp
2nd Lieutenant: C. E. Groover
2nd Lieutenant: L. R. Edmondson
Stationed at Quitman in 1863
August 4, 1863: Company muster-in roll of Captain Wiley W. Groover's Company, in the Battalion Regiment commanded by Major MacIntyre, called into the service of the Confederate States for local defense under the provisions of the Act of Congress on requisition of the President by Joseph E. Brown, Governor of Georgia, from August 4, 1863 (date of this muster) for the term of six months, unless sooner discharged, and to serve in the southwestern quarter of the state of Georgia, and west of the Altamaha River. (This is when, where and the unit James C. Barrs, his son and brother enlisted after returning from the Wakulla County, Florida Salt Works.) The 3 Barrs served in the same company, company “D”.
honor, that I have carefully examined the men whose names are borne on
roll, their horses and equipments, and have accepted them into the
the Confederate States for the term of six months from
Again adding to the confusion in researching this regiment, the 11th of Colonel McIntyre is referred to as Infantry. We researching this unit, it is advised to look at all information that can be found on any regiment bearing the 11th designation for State Guard or Militia regardless if it states infantry or cavalry.
Brown to call up a State Guard, Militia,
way to find
out about such service is often through family oral histories, county
histories, obituaries, and newspaper accounts of the time. It is
about 5000 of these men fought in the trenches around Atlanta for a
months, then saw extended field service against Sherman's march of
and destruction across Georgia. Some were captured when
A large proportion of the officers and men in all the reserve regiments and battalions were exempts from the regular Confederate service, many of them having been honorably discharged on account of wounds or failing health; many others were employees in government workshops, and some were State and county officers, while still others were either too old or too young for the regular service or had occupation beneficial to the CSA.
C. Barrs were
exempt because of their operating of the
valued Salt Works of the
Fortunately Confederate Military History has been preserved in the following information on the Georgia State Guard and Reserves.
More on the
Georgia State Guard is only a month old when the need for a strong
the Georgia State Guard in the autumn of 1863 was near
CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN SOUTH CAROLINA AND FLORIDA, AND ON THE GEORGIA COAST, FROM JANUARY 1 TO FEBRUARY 29, 1864 - # GEORGIA STATE TROOPS at Savannah Brig. Gen. HENRY R. JACKSON 11th Georgia State Guard, Col. A. T. McIntyre.
his appeal to the remaining men in
Confederate Correspondence, Orders, And Returns Relating To Operations In Southwestern Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, West Florida, And Northern Georgia.- #27 HEADQUARTERS GEORGIA MILITIA, Atlanta, GA, May 28, 1864.
Your State is invaded and a portion of its most valuable territory overrun by a vindictive enemy of great strength, who is lying waste and devastating the country behind him. Unless this force is checked speedily, the property and homes of thousands must be destroyed, and they driven out as wanderers in destitution and beggary.
Our noble army needs further re-enforcements until the emergency has passed. I have summoned the civil and military officers of the State to arms, and they are promptly and nobly responding. If any of those who are subject to militia duty are remaining at home, who are able to do service, I desire the old men to report the facts to me immediately, that courts-martial may be ordered, or other proper steps taken to compel them to do their duty, or suffer the penalties. When all the officers shall have responded, more men will still be needed.
do not order out the reserve militia except at the most exposed
points, because some must be left at home to make bread; and the old
fifty to sixty and the boys under seventeen are not able, as a general
endure hard service in the military field. But I do call upon all who
for service, and can possibly be spared from home, to hasten to the
the great battle is fought. Many have Confederate contracts, details,
exemptions who are stout and able to do military duty, and can go to
for a time without serious detriment to the public interest. All such,
others able for duty, are earnestly requested to fly to arms as the
officers have done. Let each report to General Wayne, at
Georgians, we are now in the crisis of our fate. The destiny of our posterity for ages to come may hang upon the results of the next few days. He who remains at his home now will soon occupy it as a slave, or be driven from it.
to the rescue, and till the danger is past let the watchword
of every patriot be, "To arms, and to the front;" and the vandal
hordes will soon be driven back. JOSEPH E. BROWN.
prepares to further push his invasion into
ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN,
1, 1864, TO SEPTEMBER 8, 1864: #5 HDQRS. MILITARY DIVISION OF THE
In the Field, near Chattahoochee River, July 12, 1864.
soon as I hear from Stoneman I will shift all of McPherson to
immense iron, cotton, and wool mills, and have possession of all the
country. My operations have been rather cautious than bold, but on the
trust are satisfactory to you. All of Polk's corps is still here; also
and Hood's, and the
There is apparent disagreement as to which units, how, and when Georgia Militia shall receive supplies and rations.
CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN THE
telegram of yesterday is received. When I assumed command of
this army General Johnston had accepted the services of the
Rations and forage have and are now being issued to them. They furnish now about 5,000 muskets in the trenches here. If it be required of the State to ration and forage these troops it is important that officers of the Confederate States should continue to issue such supplies now, and that the State return the supplies hereafter to the Confederate Government, either in kind or value.
J. B. HOOD, General.
reports tell of
the movement by rail of
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN LOUISIANA AND THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI STATES AND TERRITORIES, FROM OCTOBER 16, 1864, to DECEMBER 31, 1864 - #34
On the 19th of November General Sherman was near Greensborough, GA, on railroad connecting Atlanta and Augusta, GA November 20, eighty-five carloads of Georgia militia were ordered to Savannah, GA General Hardee also started for same destination with his staff, to assume command. O. R.- SERIES I -VOLUME XLI/4
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS OF NOVEMBER 15 TO DECEMBER 21, 1864: The Savannah (Georgia) Campaign, No. 3 - Itinerary of the Union Forces, November 1 December 31, 1864.
November 22: Part of the division (Second Brigade) was attacked by three brigades of Georgia militia near Griswoldville Georgia some ten miles from Macon. The enemy was repulsed and left the field with dead and wounded in our hands. Loss on the Union side was 13 killed, 69 wounded, and 2 missing. Enemy's acknowledged loss, 614. O. R. -SERIES I - VOLUME XLIV
men of the Georgia State Troops arrived in
CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA, FROM NOVEMBER 14 TO DECEMBER 31, 1864. -#3 SAVANNAH, November 30, 1864. General S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector General:
The enemy yesterday landed at two points, threatening Grahamville and Coosawhatchie, on the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. All available forces have been drawn from Charleston for defense of those paces, and General Smith, who arrived in the night with 1,200 Georgia State troops, was sent at once to the threatened point. Operator at Grahamville this morning reports enemy 5,000 strong and still landing from transports. W. J. HARDEE, Lieutenant General. O.R.- SERIES I - VOLUME XLIV
CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA, FROM NOVEMBER 14 TO DECEMBER 31, 1864. -#3 HEADQUARTERS FOURTH BRIGADE, GEORGIA MILITIA, Altamaha Bridge, December 2, 1864. R. W. B. ELLIOTT, Assistant Adjutant-General:
instructions from General McLaws I proceeded on yesterday to this
I have made my headquarters, with two regiments, on the island on the east side of Morgan's Lake. I have a company posted at the eastern trestlework of this crossing, a guard at the east end of the main bridge. At Johnston Station there is a militia company from McIntosh County, picketing down the river. At Doctor Town, on the west side of the river, there are three small companies of militia; they have sent a scouting party up the river on the east side, and have mounted pickets, one at Clark's Bluff and one at Pinhominy, both below on the west side of the river. My position here is such that I can go easily to either side of the river. My force is, however, not large; the brigade is a small one at best, and many of the men dropped out at home on their way here. I have aggregate, at Ogeechee, 147 men; at Altamaha, 220 men. I could not make a more equal distribution without breaking the regiments, which, in consequence of the want of field officers, I did not think wise. We are now on the second day without regular rations. Respectfully, H. K. McKAY, Brigadier-General, Commanding. O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLIV
General Smiths report to General Hardee dated 6 December 1864 from Savannah Headquarters gives insight to the operations from October to December involving Georgia state troops. Actions, movements, and deployments are described.
NOVEMBER 15-DECEMBER 21, 186: The Savannah (Georgia) Campaign. No. 158: Report of Maj. Gen. Gustavus W. Smith, C. S. Army, commanding First Division, Georgia Militia, of operations October 12-November 30, including engagement at Honey Hill, S.C. HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, GEORGIA MILITIA, Savannah, December 6, 1864. Lieut. Gen. W. J. HARDEE, Commanding Department
of October last I received at
Under this order, I in a short time had at Lovejoy's Station a force numbering about 2,800 effective muskets, three batteries of Confederate artillery, and between 200 and 300 local reserve cavalry.
The whole force was under my command, much the larger portion of infantry belonging to the First Division of Georgia Militia. Finding this force inadequate to make a direct assault upon Atlanta, garrisoned as it then was, General Hood suggested that I should, if practicable, cross the Chattahoochee and destroy the line of railroad between that river and the Etowah. For various reasons, which were submitted to Generals Beauregard and Hood (and by them approved), it was deemed neither practicable nor expedient to make a direct attack upon Atlanta, or upon the railroad line, as suggested; so my command continued in observation near Atlanta, preventing the enemy from foraging and keeping them in their line of works, supporting Brigadier-General Iverson, who had just in advance of us two brigades of cavalry.
The cavalry, reached my headquarters, and soon after the advance of his forces from Alabama began to arrive. On the 15th of November the enemy moved out from Atlanta and advanced upon us with his whole force, viz, the Fifteenth, Seventeenth, and Twentieth Corps, with artillery and cavalry, which was soon after joined by the Fourteenth. Our cavalry were driven that afternoon from Jonesborough to Lovejoy's, and at dark I moved my force back to Griffin, at which place we had fortifications, and I felt we could there check the enemy should he advance directly upon us.
the 16th it was ascertained the great mass of the enemy's forces had
McDonough, on the direct road from Atlanta to Macon, at which latter
there was at that time no garrison. At dark on the same day I left
marched my command to Forsyth, a distance of thirty-five miles in
hours. Learning that the enemy was crossing to the east bank of the
All of my command except the Georgia militia and two regiments of State Line troops, which reported to me just before leaving Lovejoy's, were at this time turned over to Major-General Cobb. The defense of a portion of the line around Macon, on the west bank of the Ocmulgee, was assigned to the force still left in my command. Before the troops were fairly in position orders were received to cross the river and occupy a position covering East Macon.
This movement occupied the whole night. Soon after daylight next morning my five brigades were in the respective positions assigned them, no two being in the same part of the field.
During the morning of Monday, the 21st, the First Brigade, under your own personal instructions, given direct to the colonel commanding, were sent along the line of the Central railroad, with orders to move as rapidly as possible, either by rail Or otherwise, to the city of Augusta. In the afternoon of the same day Anderson's battery of artillery was assigned to the militia, and you directed me to move as soon as possible, with this battery, the Second, Third, and Fourth Brigades of militia, and the two regiments of the State Line, to Augusta.
They moved Tuesday morning in the direction of Griswoldville, with orders to halt there and await further instructions from me. You also informed me that you had ordered Major Cook, with the Athens and Augusta battalions, to proceed to Augusta, and directed me to take them in my command if I came up with them on the route.
Arrangements for transportation of ammunition and supplies detained me a few hours in Macon, which place you had left on the evening previous. Lieutenant-General Taylor arrived there on the morning of the 22d.
Information having been received showing very clearly that a much larger force of the enemy was near the city than was supposed when you gave the orders for my troops to move, he authorized me to direct them to return. My order reached them on the eve of an engagement with what was supposed to be a small force of the enemy. Notwithstanding my order to avoid an engagement at that place and time, a collision occurred, we being the attacking party; and though the officers and men behaved with great gallantry, they failed to carry the works of the enemy, but held a position within 150 yards of their line until after dark, when they were withdrawn to Macon by my order.
The First Brigade of militia were not engaged, having passed that point in the execution of orders given by yourself Major Cook, commanding the Athens and Augusta battalions, moving under orders direct from yourself, was upon the ground and engaged in this action.
Our loss was a little over 600, being more than one-fourth of the effective muskets we had in the engagement. Several of the best field officers of the command were killed or wounded.
It is evident now that our men were opposed by the larger portion of one corps of the enemy, while another was marching from Clinton in their rear and I consider the troops were very fortunate to be withdrawn without disaster.
Lieutenant-General Taylor, having become satisfied that the enemy was leaving the vicinity of Macon, directed me to move my command on Friday morning by rail to Albany; thence march to Thomasville; thence by rail to Savannah.
Thomasville by noon Monday, having marched from Albany, a distance
fifty-five and sixty miles, in fifty-four hours. At Thomasville instead
finding five trains, the number I had requested to be sent, there were
and these could not be started until after dark, and did not arrive
2 o'clock Wednesday morning, occupying twice the time necessary between
Thomasville and Savannah, and leaving the Second, Third, and Fourth
the former place. Upon arriving here, almost broken down by fatigue and
rest, with officers and men similarly situated, I received before
cars a peremptory order from your requiring me to take the militia of
condition of both officers and men, I determined not to move the
militia or the
State Line beyond the limits of
In a personal interview with yourself you informed me that the enemy had moved out from Broad River; were encamped within a few miles of the Savannah and Charleston Railroad, threatening Grahamville and Coosawhatchie, and unless vigorously opposed would undoubtedly break the road at one or both of these points soon after daylight; and that the only force you had in your whole command which could by any possibility be brought upon the ground in time was two regular Confederate regiments from Charleston, and you believed these would be there too late; and that if I could hold the enemy in check until 2 p.m. and prevent their cutting the road before that time, several thousand re-enforcements from North and South Carolina, intended for Savannah, would arrive.
showed you my qualified authority from the Governor to withdraw the
The leading brigade arrived at Grahamville about Wednesday morning, the 30th of November. You kindly tendered me the services of your chief of artillery (Colonel Gonzales), who, upon our arrival at Grahamville, introduced me to Colonel Colcock, commander of the military district; Major Jenkins, the commander of the immediate vicinity, and Captain De Saussure, Colonel Colcock's adjutant-general.
To these four gentlemen particularly, and other officers acquainted with the locality, I am indebted for the information upon which I based the directions of the whole operation for the day.
reported the enemy rapidly advancing, skirmishing with some companies
of his cavalry
and a few pieces of artillery. He was just starting to the front, and I
requested him to select a position for my leading brigade so soon as I
dispatch it to him. I awaited the arrival of the second train of my own
and the Forty-seventh Georgia, which was momentarily expected from
Having given the necessary orders to these forces, I joined Colonel Colcock a few minutes after some four miles from the Grahamville depot and about one-half mile beyond the position we finally assumed. Colonel C. informed me the enemy had already occupied the position selected by him as the best for defense before my troops arrived. This made it necessary, in my judgment, that the leading brigade should be countermarched at once and placed in position on a line with our main battery. The troops in rear were hurried up and placed upon the same line, to the right and left of the road. The enemy in the meanwhile steadily advanced along the main road upon our position. After a proper disposition of our forces had been made and a skirmish line ordered forward, Colonel Colcock, the commander of the district and next officer in rank upon the field to myself, was assigned to the immediate executive command of the main line; Colonel Gonzales was placed in charge of the artillery, and Major Jenkins of all the cavalry; Captain De Saussure, who was thoroughly acquainted with the whole country, remained near me.
The Forty-seventh Georgia had not yet reached the field. Within five or ten minutes after these dispositions had been made the battle began by an advance piece of our artillery firing upon the enemy.
was soon formed, and from that time until near dark made continuous
carry our position. We had actually engaged five pieces of artillery,
and it is
due to the
In an hour the enemy had so extended and developed their attack that it became absolutely necessary for me to place in the front line of battle my last troops (the Forty-seventh Georgia Regiment), making in all about 1,400 effective muskets on the field, and all engaged.
From time to time alterations had to be made in our lines, by changing the positions of regiments and companies, extending intervals, &c., to prevent being flanked; and while we could not from the dense wood accurately estimate the number of the enemy, it was very clear their force largely exceeded ours, and I awaited with some anxiety the arrival of the Thirty-second Georgia and the forces expected from North and South Carolina.
Too much credit cannot be given to Colonel Colcock and Colonel Gonzales, Major Jenkins, and Captain De Saussure; to all the officers of my own staff; to Colonel Willis, commanding First Brigade of Georgia Militia; Colonel Wilson, commanding State Line Brigade; Major Cook, commanding the Athens and Augusta battalions of reserves; Lieutenant-Colonel Edwards, commanding the Forty-seventh Georgia Confederate Regiment; and to all the officers and men of every arm engaged upon that field. In short, I have never seen or known of a battle-field upon which there was so little confusion, and where every order was so cheerfully and promptly obeyed, and where a small number of men for so long a time successfully resisted the determined and oft-repeated efforts of largely superior attacking forces. The flight of the enemy during the night and the number of their dead left upon the field is evidence of the nature of the attack as well as the defense.
Brigadier-General Robertson arrived with a portion of the Thirty-second
The enemy left over 200 of their dead upon the field, and their whole loss in killed and wounded is believed to be upward of 1,000.
Brigadier-General Chesnut arrived at Grahamville Station with about 350
effective muskets of
beaten back on the 30th of November, and the Confederate forces having
arrived, there was, in my judgment, no longer any necessity for
State troops of
of the engagement near
The above copy is transmitted to General J. B. Hood because most of the operations referred to be by his direction while the militia formed part of his command. G. W. S.
Beauregard has informed me by telegraph that you will take the
command of the forces in
Besides the militia, there was temporarily assigned to me by General Cobb one regiment and two battalions of reserve infantry, numbering about 900, some 300 reserves and local cavalry, and one battalion of Confederate artillery. The forces other than the militia proper will, I take for granted, be now placed under some other commander.
strongest column through McDonough, and when I was at
I fully concurred in opinion with both General Wheeler and General Cobb. General Wheeler is confident that Sherman has with him in this movement at least 35,000 effective men, and informs me that the Fourteenth Army Corps is moving in addition to join Sherman.
Since I commenced this letter Lieutenant-General Hardee has come in. I will show him this letter before mailing it to your address. I remain, general, very respectfully and truly, yours, G. W. SMITH, Major General, First Division, Georgia Militia.
P. S: General Hardee has just shown me his orders from Richmond, dated 17th instant, stating that he commands all Georgia south of the Chattahoochee, and directing him to gather convalescents, local troops, &c., to garrison this place. G. W. S.
In the above I omitted the two regiments of State Line troops; they joined us the day before we left Lovejoy's. The two together number about 400 muskets. G. W. S. O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLIV
DECEMBER 31, 1864: The Savannah (Georgia) Campaign. The Report of Brig.
HEADQUARTERS THIRD BRIGADE, East Macon November 24, 1864. Major General PHILLIPS, Commanding First Division, Georgia Militia
GENERAL: Below please find a report of the casualties of the Third Brigade, which would have been forwarded sooner had I not been too unwell since my return to camp to do any business until this morning: My brigade went into the action on the 22d instant, I suppose about 2 o'clock, as you are aware, on the extreme left of the command. After driving the enemy through the field, across the ravine to the edge of the woods, about 100 yards beyond the ravine, I halted them, and although our ammunition was nearly exhausted I held that position, firing slowly, until dark. The enemy having ceased firing, and having been informed that our forces were being withdrawn on the right, I withdrew my brigade slowly and in good order, and reported to you at Griswoldville. I am glad to be able to say that the men and officers of my command, although they suffered severely, as the list of casualties will show, acted well. Respectfully submitted: C. D. ANDERSON, Brigadier-General, Third Brigade. O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME LIII
A report detailing the move from East of Macon to Griswoldville and the ensuing fighting that took place, involving men of the Georgia Troops.
DECEMBER 31, 1864: The Savannah (Georgia) Campaign. Report of Brig.
Pleasant J. Phillips commanding Second Brigade, Georgia Militia, of
at Griswoldville November 22 HEADQUARTERS SECOND
COLONEL: I have the honor to make the following report of the operations of the four brigades under my command on the 22d of November last:
The command left East Macon at about 8 a.m. and arrived without incident at 12 or 1 o'clock within about one mile of Griswoldville, where I found the Athens and Augusta battalions (under command of Major Cook) drawn up in line of battle. I also met a number of cavalry at and near this point, all of whom informed me that the enemy was in Griswoldville and had been engaged with some of our cavalry. He was represented to be about 800 or 1,200 strong.
I formed a line of battle, with General Anderson's brigade on the right, the Athens and Augusta battalions on his immediate left, and Brigadier-General McCoy's brigade on the left of the line. The Second Brigade, under Colonel Mann, was formed in the rear as a reserve. The State Line, under Lieutenant-Colonel Evans, was deployed as skirmishers and advanced on Griswoldville, where the enemy had just burnt some buildings and retired before we arrived, of which facts I informed the major-general commanding at about 2 p.m.
Griswoldville Major Cook withdrew the
I ordered an advance of the command, and on arriving I met Major Cook, who pointed out to me the enemy posted on the opposite eminence in line of battle behind some temporary entrenchment’s and fortifications. Major Cook's skirmishers were then engaged with the enemy on his left.
I disposed of the forces represented by the accompanying diagram, viz: The Athens and Augusta battalions on our right (owing to the position they then held), making rather an obtuse angle, with the State Line on their left, and General McCoy's brigade on the left of the State Line, General McCoy's left resting near and south of the railroad. General Anderson's brigade was formed on the north side of the railroad, his left resting parallel with the railroad, and posted Captain Anderson's battery of four guns at an eligible site on the railroad on the north side. The Second Brigade, under Colonel Mann, was drawn up in rear of the State Line, and General McCoy's brigade in a secure place to act as reserves.
In this position an advance was ordered. General Anderson, with the brigade, to attack the enemy on his right flank; Major Cook, with his, to attack him on his left flank, whilst Captain Anderson, with his battery, the State Line, and General McCoy's commands attacked him in the front.
The State Line and General McCoy's brigade moved forward in fine style under a heavy and galling fire until they reached within some fifty yards of the enemy's works, which position they maintained during the contest, and from which position they delivered a telling fire. Colonel Mann, deeming that his brigade could be of more service near the lines, advanced it to near the same position, where it participated in the general action. From some misconception of orders, when the general advance was being made General Anderson's brigade faced to the right and swept across the railroad (save a small detachment on his extreme left that was cut off by a deep cut in the railroad) and participated with the State Line and General McCoy's brigade in the direct attack, where they, both officers and men, sustained themselves with decision and gallantry.
After the action had progressed for some hours General Anderson took the detachment of his men that had been cut off, went round to the enemy's right flank, when a most spirited and desperate fight ensued, lasting some hour and a half or more; but the enemy was too firmly established and the general's force too small to dislodge him.
The order to Major Cook (from some cause of which I am not aware) to turn the enemy's left was never carried out, yet his command participated fully in the action, deported themselves gallantly, and, I regret to say, suffered much from wounds and deaths. Captain Anderson, with his battery, did good and valuable service, soon silencing the enemy's battery and forced upon him many telling shots. He is a skillful, brave, and meritorious officer. The officers and men deported themselves well during the entire action, which lasted from 3 p.m. until dark; held their positions and retired in good order to Griswoldville, where I had intended to encamp and bring off those of our wounded and dead that had not been removed from the battle-field, but on my reaching Griswoldville, I received an order from the major-general commanding ordering me to fall back to the trenches at Macon, where I arrived about 2 a.m. I can but believe if the flank movement had been carried out with all the forces assigned to that duty that it would have resulted in dislodging and probably routing the enemy, notwithstanding he was, I am satisfied, fully equal, if not superior, to our forces.
Whilst we have to regret the loss of many gallant officers and men, yet we cannot but hope that they died not in vain. Accompanying please find a diagram of the field and position of the forces and the reports of all the officers that I have been able to procure. I am, with high regard, your obedient servant, P. J. PHILLIPS, Brigadier-General, Commanding Division, Georgia Militia. O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME LIII
Another Yankee report details the movement and possible strategy behind the move of Georgia State Troops.
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY, SOUTHWEST VIRGINIA, TENNESSEE, MISSISSIPPI, ALABAMA, AND NORTH GEORGIA, FROM DECEMBER 1, 1864, TO JANUARY 23, 1865. #18
DALTON, GEORGIA December 31, 1864. [Capt. H. A. FORD] Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of the Etowah:
One of my scouts from Spring Place informs me that General Runnells, commanding Georgia State troops, has ordered them all to Murray County, with a view of capturing Dalton and Cleveland.
General Findley, C. S. Army, commanding in Lumpkin County, is to have immediate command, and is probably at Carter's plantation, on the Coosawattee, the general rendezvous. One regiment, 500 strong, is now encamped at Carter's. J. B. CULVER, Colonel Thirteenth Michigan, Commanding. O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLV/2
Confederate correspondence places members of Georgia State troops in the area of Savannah 1 February 1865.
CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN NORTH CAROLINA (FROM FEBRUARY 1), SOUTH CAROLINA, SOUTHERN GEORGIA, AND EAST FLORIDA, FROM JANUARY 1, 1865, TO MARCH 23, 1865: #1 LAMAR COBB, Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. [Memorandum]
The governor of South Carolina (General Bonham) had ordered his South Carolina State troops back from Georgia, where they had been sent to assist in the defense of Savannah. General Hardee had complied with the order, so that the Georgia State troops, of which Col. Cumming's command formed a part, thought it but just that they should not be sent across the Savannah River to assist in the defense of South Carolina soil. General Cobb, to whom they appealed, has given his views on that question. O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLVII/2
Governor Brown orders a last ditch effort to defend Columbus.
Confederate Correspondence, Orders, And Returns Relating To Operations In Southwestern Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, West Florida, And Northern Georgia: #33 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Milledgeville, Ga., April 15, 1865. Major-General SMITH:
The movements of the enemy in Central Alabama indicate an intention on their part to make an early movement upon Columbus and other points in Georgia. To enable us to meet this successfully, it will require the united efforts of all who are able to bear arms, whether they belong to the State or Confederate service.
You are, therefore, hereby directed to order out the militia of the State, subject to your command, to rendezvous at Columbus, as fast as possible.
All who, re subject to your command under your former orders from these headquarters are embraced in this call, and all subject to militia duty under fifty years of age who fail to respond will be turned over to Confederate service. I regret exceedingly to have to require them to leave their crops at this important period, but the movement of the enemy leaves no other alternative. JOSEPH E. BROWN.
GENERAL ORDERS No. 1. HDQRS. FIRST DIV., GEORGIA MILITIA, Macon, Georgia April 15, 1865.
1. In obedience to the above directions from the Governor and commander-in-chief, the militia of the State of Georgia, except those between fifty and sixty years of age, are hereby ordered to rendezvous, without delay, at Columbus.
2. The publication of these orders will be considered sufficient notice to all subject to militia duty in this command. Officers and men will observe that not only those under fifty years of age, who have previously reported, but all others subject to militia duty are embraced in this call, and all must report accordingly or be dealt with as deserters.
3. Captains of companies will send their men forward immediately, and will themselves be allowed three days, if necessary, to gather and send to Columbus all who fail to start. General, field, and staff officers and detachments will report at the rendezvous immediately. Captain Pruden's battery of artillery is included in this call.
4. No excuse will be accepted from those who carried their arms home with them in case they fail to bring them back. All are enjoined not only to obey this order promptly, but they are authorized and directed to bring out all who owe service in the militia, and all public arms not in public use in their respective districts must be brought to the rendezvous.
5. The militia between fifty and sixty years of age in each county are required to hold themselves in readiness to respond at a moment's notice to future orders of the Governor calling them into active service. G. W. SMITH, Major General. O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME LII/2
Yankee orders of 3 May 1865 call for Governor Brown to surrender the Georgia State troops and their supplies.
Union Correspondence, Orders, And Returns Relating To Operations In Kentucky, Southwestern Virginia, Tennessee, Northern And Central Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, And West Florida, From March 16 To June 30, 1865: #24 HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon, Ga., May 3, 1865. Maj. Gen. GEORGE H. THOMAS, Commanding Department of the Cumberland, Nashville, Tenn.:
I have sent Majors Williams and McBurney, of my staff, to Milledgeville to receive the surrender of troops there, and to direct the transportation of the Confederate stores to this place.
I have also demanded of Governor Brown, commander-in-chief of the Georgia militia, the surrender of his troops and the military stores pertaining to them. He is to meet me in person at this place to-morrow afternoon for the purpose of arranging the details of the capitulation. I have already conferred with General H. C. Wayne, adjutant and inspector general, who assures me that the terms prescribed will be carried into effect. General McCook will start to-morrow with a small force to Tallahassee, FL., to receive the surrender of the troops under the command of General Sam Jones in that district. As you doubtless know General Cobb surrendered this place with its garrison to me on the 20th of April, immediately after the appearance of my advance before it. Since then he has put my officers in possession of all Confederate supplies within our reach by rail in Central and Southwestern Georgia. O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLIX/2 [S# 104]
Union Correspondence, Orders, And Returns Relating To Operations In Kentucky, Southwestern Virginia, Tennessee, Northern And Central Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, And West Florida, From March 16 To June 30, 1865: #24 HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon, Ga., May 3, 1865. JOSEPH E. BROWN, Commander-in-Chief of the Georgia Militia, Milledgeville, Georgia:
SIR: In accordance with the terms of the convention between General Sherman and General Johnston, C. S. Army, similar in all respects to that between General Grant and General Lee, I have the honor to request that you will take the necessary steps to surrender the troops under your command, with all the arms and military stores pertaining thereto. The terms of the convention are as follows:
First: Bvt. Maj. Gen. J. H. Wilson, U.S. Army, or such officer as he may appoint, is designated to receive the surrender.
Second. Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to an officer designated by General Wilson, the other to be retained by such Confederate officer as may be designated by the Confederate commander at the time of the surrender.
Third: The officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the United States Government until properly exchanged, and each company, battalion, or regimental commander to sign a like parole for the men under his command.
Fourth: All arms and public property to be stored and packed and turned over to an officer to be named by Brevet Major-General Wilson to receive them. This will not embrace the side arms of the officers nor their private horses or baggage.
Fifth: This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to his home, not to be disturbed by the military authorities of the United States, so long as they preserve their parole and obey the laws which were in force previous to January 1, 1861, where they reside. For the purpose of arranging the details, I will meet you on your arrival at this place Thursday afternoon. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, J. H. WILSON, Brevet Major-General O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLIX/2
It has been my attempt to get as much specific information about the men of the 11th Georgia State Guard Cavalry. Because of the state of reporting of State Guard, Militia and Reserve regiments, or at least in records that I have found or have access to, much general information about the overall movement and deployment of the militia has been compiled.
Without further research and the coming forth of letters and diaries from the very men themselves, it may be difficult to pinpoint more information about the actions of this specific regiment.
Questions that linger are "How many men re-enrolled following the mustering out of February 1964?" "Where were these men specifically assigned?" "What was their designation?" Certainly thoughts of turning back the Yankee invasion and protecting the home state became mixed with the concerns of the family and farms back home. "At what point did men leave to protect their own counties, farms and homes?"
One can only speculate at this time. As we reflect on the 11th regiment’s story and in fact on the entire story of the Georgia State Guard and Militia, it brings forth visions of honor and terror at the same time.
Perhaps, we the descendents of these brave men best appreciate this split sense of duty to state and family. This was certainly no "Civil War" and most certainly not a war fought to keep black men slaves. Perhaps the entire country would do well to learn of these men’s stories as it most likely more accurately defines the reason Georgia men, young and old, took up arms in defense of their homes and families.
Fort where G-G Grandfather James C. Barrs was captured by overwhelming Union troops
Col. George W. Rains
William T. Gould
George T. Jackson
Thomas H. Holleyman
O. H. Lufburrow
F. L. Markey
C. Shaler Smith
Cornelius B. Veronee
Jacob W. Adams
Barnes Light Artillery
Augusta Volunteer Artillery
George T. Barnes
W. E. Dearing
This regiment was organized in September 1862 to serve as local defense for the duration of the war. Some of the companies became a part of the 2nd Battalion Georgia Local Defense Troops (Augusta).
1st Regiment Georgia Militia, Infantry
Col. Thomas J. Pilgrim
Nothing else is known about this unit.